The Sangil Culture

Sangihe IslandThe Sangil (Sangir, Sangihe, Sangu, Marore, Sangirezen, Talaoerezen) are the people who live in the Sangihe and Talaud island group, and in the southern coast of Mindanao about Sarangani Bay. The population is concentrated in Balut and Sarangani islands (2,085) off Mindanao, and Jose Abad Santos (685) in the province of Davao del Sur where there are a total of 4,322 (NSO 1980). The national population is some 10,344 (NM 1994). They speak a language with Indonesian affinities. Islamic in influence, much of the indigenous culture has changed and been absorbed into the coastal societies, especially into the Kalagan group. The culture is associated with lowland and coastal adaptations with Continue reading

The Manobo Culture

ManoboThe Manobo are probably the most numerous of the ethnic groups of the Philippines in terms of the relationships and names of the various groups that belong to this family of languages. Mention has been made of the numerous subgroups that comprise the Manobo group. The total national population including the subgroups is 749,042 (NM 1994); occupying core areas from Sarangani island into the Mindanao mainland in the provinces of Agusan del Sur, Davao provinces, Bukidnon, and North and South Cotabato. The groups occupy such a wide area of distribution that localized groups have assumed the character of distinctiveness as a separate ethnic grouping such Continue reading

The Mandaya Culture

MandayaConsisting of both the non-Christian and non-Islamic, the Mandaya (Mangwanga, Mangrangan, Managosan, Magosan, Pagsupan, Divavaonon, Dibabaon, Mansaka) are found throughout Davao Oriental and Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Their name denotes the “first people upstream” and derived from man “first” and daya “upstream or upper portion of a river”. They are shifting cultivators who depend largely on swidden farming (slash-and-burn) and supplement it with fishing, hunting-gathering, and planting of abaca as a cash crop. The Mandaya family structure is traditionally paternalistic with the father seen as the head of the family and the sole provider of the family. The mother, in turn, takes care of all household chores, while Continue reading

The Mamanwa Culture

Conking, Mamaw, Amamanusa, Manmanua, Mamaua, MamanwaThe Mamanwa (variously called Conking, Mamaw, Amamanusa, Manmanua, Mamaua, Mamanwa) are one of the three groups that occupy a very distinct position in Philippine populations. Heretofore, the Mamanwa has been classified as a Negrito subgroup, but physical anthropological data indicate otherwise. The Mamanwa form a distinct branch from the rest of the Philippine populations which include the various groups of the Negrito, and the Austronesian-speaking peoples which now comprise the modern populations. The Mamanwa appear to be an older branch of population appearances in the Philippines affecting to some extent the Negrito of northeastern Luzon. Like all the Negrito groups in the country, the Mamanwa speak a language that is basically that of the dominant group about them. Continue reading

The Magindanao Culture

MaguindanaoThe Magindanao (Magindanaw, Maguindanaw, Maguindanaon, Magindanaoan, Mindanao) are one of the larger ethnic groups of the country with a total population of over 1,649,882 (NM 1994), with about 469,216 of this number found in the province of Maguindanao. The concentrations are in the municipalities of Dinaig (35,851), Datu Piang (51,970), Maganoy (46,006), and Buluan (52,242)(NSO 1990). The Maguindanaon, or Maguindanaw for some, inhabit North Cotobato, South Cotobato, Sultan Kudurat, Zamboanga del Sur, and Maguindanao; the latter having the largest concentration. Maguindanaon means “people of the flood plain” for they primarily inhabit the broad Pulangi River valley and Continue reading

The Kolibugan Culture

SioconThe Kolibugan resulted from the intermingling of the indigenous Subanon populations with the Muslim populations in the coastal areas of Zamboanga. The population is concentrated along the western side of the provinces of both northern (6,495) and southern Zamboanga (3,270), and a national count of over 11,000. The concentrations are in Siocon (2,040), Sirawai (1,960), and Sibuco (1,520) (NSO 1980). The total population count is estimated at 32,227 (NM 1994). The Kolibugan Subanon inhabit the Zamboanga Peninsula, southern Zamboanga del Norte, and some parts of Zamboanga del Sur. Their language is similar to that of the Western Subanon but with some grammatical differences. Continue reading

The Kamiguin Culture

Camiguin BoatThe oldest town of the island of Camiguin—Guinsiliban—just off the northern coast of Mindanao, was originally inhabited by the Kamiguin speakers of a language (Quinamiguin, Camiguinon) that is derived from Manobo with a mixture of Boholano. Sagay is the only other municipality where this is spoken. The total population is 531 (NSO 1990). Boholano predominates in the rest of the island. The culture of the Kamiguin has been subsumed within the context of Boholano or Visayan culture. The people were Christianized as early as 1596. The major agricultural products are abaca, cacao, coffee, banana, rice, corn, and coconut. The production of hemp is the major industry of the people since abaca thrives very well Continue reading

The Kamayo Culture

KamayoThe Kamayo are concentrated in Bislig City, Lianga, Marihatag, and San Agustin in Surigao del Sur, Mindanao. A scattered population is also found in Cateel and Baganga, Davao Oriental. Kamayo is related linguistically to the Tausug and Butuanon, and belongs to the Meso and central Philippine family of languages. However, the people speak dialects that vary from town to town. Meanwhile, some municipalities such as Lingig, Bislig, Barobo, and Hinatuan are using a different version of the language: A prefix is attached to most adjectives. The disparities of the dialects are due to the interchange of communication between the Kamayo settlers and the native Manobo. The group is concentrated in the provinces of Agusan del Norte (6,500) and Surigao del Sur (115,850). The population estimate at present is placed at 122,350 (NM 1994).

Like most of the groups in the eastern coast of Mindanao, the Kamayo cultivate wet rice in the flat land along the coast and nearby valleys while upland fields are planted to a variety of crops including cash crops of abaca.

The Kalagan Culture

KalaganThe Kalagan live on the island of Mindanao in the southern Philippines. They are located in an area between the interior uplands and the western coast of the Davao Gulf. These Kalagan are mainly of the Tagakaolo Kalagan branch. They have converted to Islam either through intermarriage or through contact with their close neighbors, the Magindanaw. The Kalagan (Tagakaolo, Dagan, Laoc, Saka, Caragan, Calagan, Kagan, Laoc, Caragan, Calagan, Mandaya, Mansaka) belong to the Mandaya/Mansaka group, and have three subgroups: (1) Tagakaolo proper, (2) Kagan, and (3) Lao. The latter is an acculturated group in the Haguimitan mountains of the San Agustin peninsula on the east side of Davao gulf, Continue reading

The Ilanun Culture

Iranun MaguindanaoThe Ilanun (Iranun, Ilianon, Ilanum, Hilanoones, Ilanos) are a group related to the Maranao and the Magindanao. They are found in the province of Maguindanao in the municipalities of Nulingi (15,175), Parang (8,045), Matanog (5,595), and Barira (5,650) (NSO 1980)—the area about Polloc Harbor and Illana Bay east of Zamboanga and traditionally to the foothills of the Tiruray highlands; with a population of over 149,683 (NM 1994). The major concentration of the people is now along the coastline. There is a remnant group called Ilanun of over 4,000 people on the western coastal plain of North Borneo. The Ilanun differentiated from the Maranao and Magindanao populations prior to the introduction of Islam into the area, remaining Continue reading