Ilocos Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. The province is bounded on the north by Ilocos Norte and Abra, on the south by La Union; on the east by Benguet and Mountain Province and on the west by the China Sea. It has a total land area of 2,579.6 square km. The province of Ilocos Sur is politically subdivided into 34 municipalities and 761 barangays. The history of Ilocos Sur from the beginning of Spanish rule to the first decade of the 19th century was characterized by revolts in protest against tributes and forced labor, as well as monopolies of some industries. The economy of Ilocos Sur is based on agriculture, producing a wide variety of vegetables, animals, and fish. Principal products are rice, corn, tobacco, garlic, sugarcane and cassava. They are expanding into a variety of food-processing industries, and also practice a number of crafts and cottage industries: blanketweaving, basketry, shellcraft, broommaking, pottery-making, wine and vinegar making, jewelry making, wood and stone craft, among others jars and antiques can also be bought in Vigan. Transportation services have been modernized, and tourism is now established.
Ilocano is the common dialect of the people. English and Pilipino are widely spoken and still remain as basic tools of instruction in schools. The province experiences two pronounced seasons – dry from November to April and wet from May to October. Mean temperature for the lowlands is greater than 7°C compared to the highlands. Coolest temperature occurs during December to February.