Neolithic Shell Midden Sites in Lal-lo & Gattaran

GattaranNeolithic shell midden sites are located along the banks of the Cagayan River in the Municipalities of Lal-lo and Gattaran, about 500 kilometers northeast of Manila. The shell middens are in varying sizes and extent; and made up mostly of one type of freshwater clams, Batissa childreni. The biggest deposits of shells are found in Magapit and Bangag in Lal-lo. The thickest is more than six feet. Associated with these shell middens are polished stone tools, chert flakes, bones and teeth, and red slipped earthenware with incised and impressed designs. Most of stone tools are ground, polished with a trapezoidal cross-section; and made of sandstone, claystone and shale. Continue reading

Mount Apo Natural Park

Mount ApoThe 64,053.00 hectares Mount Apo Natural Park is dominated by the highest mountain in the Philippine archipelago, the majestic Mt. Apo, a volcanic mountain rising to 3,143.6 meters above sea level. Mt Apo hosts five (5) distinct forest formations, from lowland forest to low montane forest, high montane forest and finally to summit or scrub forest. In addition to variations in its topography, interactions of other factors, such as, climate, soil, geology, slope and drainage have allowed for the development of a wide diversity in plant community types and associations in the region. Continue reading

Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park

Northern Sierra Madre Natural ParkThe Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park (NSMNP) is within the Sierra Madre Biogeographic Zone (SMBGZ) which lies along the eastern side of Central Luzon. The Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park (NSMNP) is one of the ten (10) priority protected areas in the country. The Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park (NSMNP) is considered one of the most important of the protected areas system of the Philippines. It is the largest protected area in the country and the richest in terms of genetic, species and habitat diversity. The importance of the park is underscored by the myriad of rare and endangered species of flora and fauna that it supports. These include Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi ), Golden Crowned Flying Fox (Acerodon jubatus ), Philippine Eagle-Owl ( Bubo philippensis), Isabela Oriole (Oriolus isabellae ), Green Sea Continue reading

Paleolithic Archaeological Sites in Cagayan Valley

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photo courtesy of

Paleolithic sites are located within the Cagayan Valley Basin which is bordered by the Sierra Mountain range on the East; the Caraballo on the South; the Cordillera Central on the west; and the Babuyan Channel on the north.

Found in two municipalities of the province, namely, Solana and Penablanca, Paleolithic sites yielded the earliest stone tools and remains of extinct and extant species of animals. Continue reading

Petroglyphs & Petrographs

Angono Petroglyphs PhilippinesThese petroglyphs are of animate figures interpreted as representing juveniles or infants on a rock face in a rock shelter. The shelter is located southeast of the city of Manila, three kilometers from the town of Angono, and some 235 meters above sea level.  The shelter if formed by quaternary volcanics, located on the eastern limb of an anticline. The cave faces 305 degrees west and measures 632. 84 meters, 4.68 meters in height and 8.2 meters in depth. The cave was formed at the close of the Pleistocene, early part of the Holocene, at a period when the quaternary alluvium was not yet extensive.The petroglyphs occupy 25 meters of the rockwall with a height of 3.7 meters from the floor level. The engravings are executed into all the available space on the wall with no orientation nor association with one another. Continue reading

San Sebastian Church in Quiapo

San Sebastian Church Quiapo ManilaThe San Sebastian Church is located in Quiapo, one of Manila’s older districts.  Surrounding it are rows of old houses.  The Church of San Sebastian is made of a steel frame and panels and is  known for its distinct characteristic – that of being the only neo-gothic steel church in the Philippines and in Asia. Continue reading

Fuerza de Santa Isabel in Taytay

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Photo courtesy of

Fuerza de Sta. Isabel is a quadrilateral fort with four bastions each of which has a bartisan. Each bastion is attributed to following Saints; San Toribio, San Miguel, San Juan and Sta. Isabel. The stone fortress was built by the Augustinian Recollects in 1738. The fortress is made out of stone walls. A chapel is erected inside the fortress.

Fuerza de Santa Isabel was first built as a wood palisade in 1667 under the Augustinian Recollect Fathers. After 71 years of forced labor and material contributions by the subject Taytayanos, it was completed as a stone fort in December 17, 1738 by Tomas Castro, the Spanish military engineer, under the command Continue reading

Fuerza de San Andres in Romblon

Fuerza de San Andres RomblonFuerza de San Andres was built by the Augustinian Recollects in the early half of the 17th century. The fortress is situated on top of a hill, overlooking the town and coast of Romblon, Romblon. This is one of the two fortresses in the town of Romblon.  The fortress is rectangular with circular watch towers in every corner, and is made of coral stone. Continue reading

Panglao Island

Alona BeachPanglao Island is located at the southwest tip of Bohol and is accessible through Tagbilaran City, Bohol‘s capital. Trips to Bohol are available daily, and the capital city can be reached either by commercial flights or by boat. Panglao Island is home to Alona Beach, Bagobo Beach, Bolod Beach, Danao Beach, Doljo Beach, and Momo Beach. Panglao is a perfect for a great dive and beach holiday. It is a small island on the Philippines southwest of the bigger island, Bohol. On the southern beach of Panglao there are several resorts that line up on the beach. Continue reading

Punta Cruz Watch Tower in Maribojoc

Punta Cruz FortificationLocated at the western tip of Maribojoc. The popular name of Barangay Punta Cruz is derived from the” Punta” which means  cape  and the word Punta Cruz was coined from the cross which was planted on the said place to scare the Moro marauders. The original and extinct name of the place is Guimnay where a spring is located serving the inhabitants as its water source. Built in 1796, the only perfect isosceles triangle tower-the only structure so formed in the country. Continue reading